What existed before the Big Bang?

--asks Michael Y. from Detroit, MI.

Our bubbly beginning? [CREDIT:SXC]
By | Posted August 21, 2006
Posted in: Ever Wondered?, Physical Science
Tags: , ,

Once upon a time, 14 billion years ago, a cosmic explosion released an immense amount of heat and pressure. All the particles and energy in our universe, once confined to a space about the size of a dime, raced away from one another at tremendous speeds. As the hot particles cooled and continued to expand into space, matter formed and the stars and galaxies of our universe were born. And so, the story of our universe began… or did it?

Maybe something came before the Big Bang. Physicists have tried for decades to write the mathematical prelude to our universe’s fiery birth, but Einstein’s theory of general relativity stopped them short. An immense amount of matter and energy were built up in an infinitesimally small point at the moment of our universe’s birth, and the laws of general relativity that govern large bodies and systems in the universe are no longer appropriate on such a small scale. Instead, quantum theory, which deals with the quirky properties of the very small subatomic particles in the universe, takes over. Traveling to the beginning of it all, at least our all, requires some way of reconciling general relativity with quantum theory.

“The unification of these two is the only thing that allows us to look before the Big Bang,” says Michio Kaku, a theoretical physicist at City University of New York. So far, the leading theory of unification, according to Kaku, is string theory—the idea that tiny strings vibrating in unseen dimensions of space make up all matter, light, energy, everything. If our universe is described in eleven dimensions filled with these subatomic strings, physicists believe the fundamental physical forces can be unified and they can get closer to describing the instant of our universe’s birth and maybe even what came before it.

Armed with string theory, Kaku and others speculate that before our Big Bang, there were simply more universes. “Our universe could have either popped into existence or collided with another universe,” he says. Imagine a bubble bath where each bubble represents a universe. In this multiversal tub that existed before our Big Bang—and still exists today—universe bubbles are colliding, popping, budding new bubbles, expanding and contracting. If this scenario really exists, “Big Bangs happen all the time,” says Kaku.

Some physicists believe our universe was created by colliding with another, but Kaku says it also may have sprung from nothing: a completely empty eleven dimensional universe with no spin, no charge and no energy. This seemingly tranquil nothingness universe was actually unstable and some physicists believe that a fluctuation in the vacuum caused our universe to pinch off from its empty existence without time and space to a universe that was large enough to expand. Like a bubble in a bath, our universe had to grow instantaneously in order to survive and escape the collapsing fate of small bubbles.

This “quantum leap” involved four of the dimensions of the empty universe, which now frame the universe we live in. Expanding suddenly, this event sparked the Big Bang and caused the further expansion which created matter and continues to push the galaxies apart today. Meanwhile, the seven remaining dimensions shrunk to an almost inconceivable size, much smaller than an atom.

String theory is so far a purely mathematical journey back to these primordial moments, and some physicists are considering different explanations. The higher dimensions of our universe, if they exist, cannot be directly explored because today’s instruments are not powerful enough to measure their small size. But there are experiments—both Earth-bound and space-based—that may provide evidence to support string theory.

Next year, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be turned on outside Geneva. Physicists hope that it will begin to create supersymmetric particles (a.k.a. “sparticles”) that Kaku says are a vibration of strings. If and when another new apparatus called the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna goes up into space, physicists will use its three laser-connected satellites to look for vibrations of space and time, known as gravitational waves, left over from the Big Bang. Kaku is confident these experiments and others will provide physical evidence for higher dimensions and string theory.

But results from these new experiments are many years away, and until then, physicists will continue to speculate about what might have existed before the Big Bang. Many hope that these experiments will finally shed some light on the mystery. While we’re all waiting, perhaps the best we can do is slip into a bubble bath and contemplate the unknown.

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  1. My view,

    Time has always existed and will always exist. At some previous point in time nothing existed except time and the laws governing everything that did not exist. We could call this set of laws and time, God.

    One of these laws can be stated as “things must change unexpectedly through feedback and replication”. The only change that could take place in the nothingness state is for something to unexpectedly exist. This something was light.

    At first the light was all that existed but to conform to the pattern of unexpected change the light, compressed by gravity as it was then, formed the first atoms of matter and as other unexpected changes took place atoms became more varied until the mass of the light and matter collapsed under its own gravity and exploded, filling the nothingness with its debris

    This pattern of unexpected change continued for billions of years until a wonderful unexpected change occurred, atoms of matter formed life reliant on the same patterns and laws that produced the earliest matter, feedback and replication. The mathematics/laws of life the universe and everything have always existed and it is time that allows for the unexpected results to be observed by beings such as ourselves.

    If we call the creator God and expect to worship the creator we need to understand the nature of God.

    Time is God, God is Time and all ‘things’ work according to God’s (Times) rules.

    The ‘plan’ is to continue to apply these rules until further notice (an expected unexpected event)

    The end (of course there isn’t one)

    Peter L Shields, August 17, 2011 at 8:23 pm
  2. Kudos to gail, who posted first with very good question and to chance beauclair, April 25, 2007 at 5:56 pm for post # 10, which is also my view.

    Or, with more imagined details, from an intensely dense (all-universal-matter) core, a nearly unimaginably huge explosion which bursts and expands at such speed that light itself only comes much later, long after enormous wave-rings of pulsing invisible (as humans view it) radiation at greatly spaced irregular intervals race outward from a central void. Thus, “the universe,” properly speaking, by this view, would be the bubble “surface” of the explosion’s expanding area. Nothing meaningful is “inside” the bubble just as, beyond it, there is nothing, No space-time, matter or any referential point.

    Gravity’s forces operate throughout the bubble surface from within which, any human-like observer would see what appears as space does to us. All the distances, all the objects and the visible and invisible radiation are, however, ranged over and across the “bubble”-surface which comprises the universe since, by appearance, there is nothing “beyond” or “within” that expanding, but slowing, surface area.

    At an undertimed limit then what? A collapse? With the furthest reaches of the surface slowing to a infinitessimal halt and then a reversal to collapse into eventually an again super-dense core of matter which, upon reaching critical density, explodes again, with the repetition of the process. Thus, each universe is a unique set of phenomena unfolding from the initial explosion to re-collapse; within these, all existence, space-time, have their actualisation. In that way, space-time is an eternal series of unique events which have neither a first origin or final end. Thus, an infinity of unique big bangs have occurred and go on occurring. Our notions of constants and physical laws and forces are what “obtain” both in this particular universe event and at our “locale” in that event. There would be outer-limit regions of the bubble-surface (since it is only “thin” in very relative sense) where those laws and constants may not have any application–with faster (or slower) “constant” light-speeds at these “quanta”-like regions of the bubble-surface.

    These universe events, as it seems to me, are without point or purpose from any observing pointing of view. Endlessly repeating, without any ultimate or informing goal or reason.

    proximity1, September 24, 2011 at 11:52 am
  3. to correct a typographical error,

    …”At an undertimed limit”… should read, …”At an undetermined limit”…

    proximity1, September 24, 2011 at 11:57 am
  4. something existed from nothing? its like magic. i do like magic but don’t believe in it. people who do also believe in god. Lets be open minded(for sake of discussion) and say god exists. but who created GOD? well god is standing in same queue as big bang – which needs to be answered!!

    i think its impossible that something can exist from nothing. but consider it- that’s what happened,u , me and everything we see is present before us.are we are missing something? if the impossible has occurred then there are no rules , no gravity, no reality, no illusion, no coincidence. trust me when i say this – anything is possible, we just need to realize it!!

    keep an eye out for “SOMETHING” (magic)!!

    fateh singh, October 18, 2011 at 4:21 am
  5. Question is if there was something before Big Bang, what was/were that/those things ? Many models have been made but doubt persists still now.From the time of Big Bang which is now 13.7 billion years old ( by terrestrial time calculation) one thing was there without any shadow of doubt and that was space-infinite & endless space. Was this endless space totally empty i.e. in vacuum. Subsequent creation of universe certainly required ingredients to create core of the round body and such assumption is quite logical. The most basic requirements which would form matter and antimatter must be in particle forms distributed in the endless space. Each particle was at such a distance from the other that the probability of coming together was indeed a rarity. Normal rules of physics were not applicable and billions of trillions of such particles covered vast and vast areas for infinite range of time. Per chance some particles came within the ambit of mutual interaction to ultimately coalesce into bigger volumes like soap bubbles. The magic thus started and as the formation of the ball went on increasing in size larger and larger and finally engulfing all the particles which were lying in the vast space into a fantastically unimaginable massive one.As and when the ball was gradually gaining volumes, the particles started forming proton, electron, anti proton, positron etc producing heat at the same time.The growth of the body with simultaneous increase in temperature reached such a stage that it was no longer possible to keep the entire body in tact and ultimately it collapsed with a Big Bang shooting the internally created matter and antimatter in various forms in all directions in the unhindered space. Unfortunately myself not being an expert in mathematics , no such models could be framed and leave it to the scholars to do the same if possible.

    Bhabani Charan, October 19, 2011 at 11:55 am
  6. There is so much we don’t know. The big bang happened, we do know that. In the universe of today, you don’t get something from nothing, there are no free lunches. Matter and energy are always conserved. Everything is conserved. Almost every problem in physics can be solved through conservation: conservation of energy, conservation of linear momentum, conservation of angular momentum, conservation of mass and enery which are basically equivalent (E=MC^2). All of the matter that was present in this singularity had to come from somewhere. If it didn’t come from our singularity of a universe, then where did it come from? The only logical answer is that it came from another universe or universes! I like the colliding universe theory, but how could so much matter come from a tiny little point of collision between two universes? That is why physicists like the idea that the mass was already present in this singularity. But we are thinking in 3D space because the human brain is hard wired to think that way, and we will never be able to think outside these 3Ds, or 4 if you include time. But what if these universes existed in different dimensions? Somehow they had to create the dimensions of our universe. What if upon collision, one or more of the dimensions from these universes had to have collapsed. In other words, these universes lost some, or all, the dimensions to the resulting universe, and when a dimension collapses, it makes sens to collapse to something like a point or singularity, hence the singularity that was the egg of our universe. Just imagine all the energy from a collision of two universes. Imagine the resulting energy from this dimensional collapse. Imagine if the 3D universe we live in today, was suddenly collapsed into a 2D universe!
    Now think of all the dark matter that contains 95% of the known matter in the universe. We know its there from the background radiation picked up by radio telescopes here on Earth. But we can’t see it, we can’t find it, we can’t measure it. So where is it? It must be in some dimension we are not familiar with. Or perhaps its in a point that we just can’t see. Perhaps that’s the matter that is given up when two universes collide.
    What do YOU think?

    Steve, October 20, 2011 at 10:16 pm
  7. I am Canice. I existed before the big bang because I choose to. I have cleansed my spirit. I now have a clarity only the infinite can now approach. The infinite thought they could always control us and they can if you ever let your emotions rule your spirit but once you realize your emotions are for you to control the infinite loses all power over you. You then control the infinite because without the finite the infinite has no relativity. Infinite I control you and I can travel anywhere in the finite universe I want because unlike you I am on the continuum of matter.

    Matter can not exist in the same span as no Matter but it does and the time this happened is what existed before the bing bang. Eisten and Newton and other believe in laws of the universe that ultimately limit us with finite contructs which I know are false and which is why I existed before the bing bang.

    canice, February 25, 2012 at 12:38 am
  8. i just want to see my dad again. where ever that may be

    john sorrentino, May 29, 2012 at 7:57 am
  9. what actully happend before the big theory then?

    shannonboon69, June 14, 2012 at 6:17 am
  10. If it all was, at one time, ALL microscopic, it may still be so in terms of relative space. The existence of us and our entire universe could be “discovered” under a microscope in some other universe.

    jim f, February 3, 2013 at 2:14 pm
  11. I am convinced that before the legendary BB, unknown frames- with different concepts of time, space, matter and gravity-existed but had radically different properties from the physical laws derived from our interactions with the universe. In such a scenario, the pre-BB period would appear to have been ’empty nothingness’ to a post-BB human since with the explosion, new frames-time, space- were defined from old sets that we know nothing about.
    Just like no child ever recalls/conceptualizes being inside his mother’s womb, we cannot comprehend what was in existence before the BB gave ‘birth’ to a new kid(the universe)

    jackson, March 27, 2013 at 12:18 pm
  12. There are many theories about the Big Bang. Here nasha-vselennaia.ru/?p=10056 presents a new hypothesis on the origin of the universe.
    For a distant observer, the Big Bang is a result of the collisions in the universe of all galaxies – substances with the speed of light – (C).
    For an observer, who is in the middle of the action – Big Bang in the center of the black hole is a result of the collisions in the universe of all galaxies – substances with the speed of 0 km/s.
    Because of the great gravity, processes in the center of the black hole slow down in a split second before the Big Bang and the time stretches. On this basis, an observer in the center of the black hole sees that the collision rate between galaxies is 0 km/s.
    An observer, who is far from the middle of the action – far from the center of the black hole sees that all galaxies collide with the speed of light – (C).

    Mikheili, September 5, 2013 at 4:43 pm
  13. To learn from each other we must speak to each other. If you are here on this blog you are probably here for a reason. you are not a lost soul but instead a soul that does not limit your self to finite constructs. John S. my friend i miss my dad to but he loves you too much for you to see him in your finite existence so accept that. I know I will never see my dad again in my finite existence. But I can sense his presence. The fact that I can sense his presence is why I think we should not look at the big bang two dimensionally. Believe me as i write this there is probably one or two big bangs happening now. You see the universe is made up of an infinite amount of finite matter which is why the finite and the infinite have a symbiotic relationship. What you guys think that are reading this? Lets have a dialogue not a monologue. I will check back again tomorrow or in a month or in a year or in 30 but the Canice will be back. God Bless I am the Patty

    canice, December 15, 2013 at 1:48 am
  14. Weird that other people never find this article and comment on it anymore. Seriously this is a great question by the author of this story. It seems the world has gotten so much worse then when I first posted here in 2007. I just feel respect for things is fading. I think the internet and technology has such an ability to do good. However, it seems it also plays a role in harvesting the worse in us humans. I think it takes away introspection and discussion. It makes people always search but never stop and talk or listen.

    Anyways, my theory is the bing bang lives in each of us. By that I mean we are each a universe to our selves because we are all unique. So to me the big bang is the moment when you are at peace with you yourself. Once you get your spirit pure you will realize you are Gods equal because that is what he is looking for is a companion. He can only truly have a companion if a human gets truly self actualized in this life. Generally, once a human is dead their finite existence is gone and becomes singular with the infinite. A singular being is by definition alone. Get self actualized in this life and your existence will exist in the afterlife because you will then be God’s equal and God’s companion as a distinct finite being that is separately aware.

    Realize what you must break through. God sees humans as kind of as a continuum not as seperate beings. He created the big bang to put us in existence (he is the nothing that us humans the something came from) but sees the human race as a whole as a companion but it is not because the human race will end and he will be alone again unless of course a singular human creates his own big bang and becomes Gods equal. Such human will then transcend this finite existence.

    Query – Is Jesus a separate being from God?

    canice, June 25, 2014 at 11:26 pm
  15. Yes! Finally someone writes about kosmetyki.

    piękne rzęsy, November 19, 2014 at 8:59 am
  16. You can only taste that drink by drinking it…not by theory ect!
    It, IT, can be experienced by experiencing it, IT, not by theory ect!

    Owen, December 8, 2014 at 10:23 pm
  17. If you are drinking that coffee you know how it tastes and you do not have to ask someone else! OKAY !
    If one know what IT is then you do not have to ask someone else what IT is! OK!

    Owen, December 8, 2014 at 10:38 pm
  18. If one knows NOTHING then you not need to ask what NOTHING is. Get it!

    Owen, December 8, 2014 at 10:43 pm
  19. Agree with you canice….where are all of them ? Geting feed back is like
    nourishing our being! Big bang!?! BUT WHAT DID IT EXPLODE INTO??? Nobody seems to ponder on this…GET IT…you have to taste that coffee by drinking it!
    You have to expeience the TRUE REALITY ECT. BY THE EXPEIENCE OF “IT”
    Any feed back guys!

    Owen, December 12, 2014 at 1:01 am
  20. When you EXPERIENCE IT you will know. Then one does not have to bother, about bothering about science/maths/nothing/something/BB/religion ect.ect.
    The truth about experience is that it is absolutly fantastic and BEYOND WORDS!
    IT is truly wonderful, really WONDERFUL! Literally mind blowing! Once again…
    You have to drink that coffee to KNOW HOW IT TASTES! One can not know how it tastes by the use of science/maths/nothing/something/BB/religion ect.ect. You
    can try but you will be missing the reality of the taste of coffee.
    So one asks….What happend before the so called BB? “REALITY” !
    So one asks….What is REALITY ? That is beyond words.You have to experience IT.
    Remember the coffee thing! Reality IS just wonderful, mind blowing! Enjoy life!

    Owen, December 12, 2014 at 3:41 am
  21. Alright Owen when I drink my coffee tomorrow I will savor it. Being finite is alright. Savor the moment but always have compassion.

    canice, April 5, 2015 at 11:51 pm
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  24. The big bang theory and the universe as a whole is mirrored in the existence Of life form. If you look at yourself, you are first born. But where has your structure come from? Like the universe you came from chemical and physical reactions – a contradiction here being the universe provided the building blocks for our physical existence. We have created the concept of consciousness and a soul. If this is to be accepted, our soul must have pre dated our physical existence, otherwise the same laws of science must also create our conscious, yet we have no recollection of birth or what came before. We have a parody here with big bang. The physical and chemical reactions occurred, but there must have been a catalyst. Life was also born through the big bang, or a universe soul – call this god theory if you can. Just maybe god exists along with The universe as our soul or consciousness does with our body. Perhaps like us, the universe and god has no pre big bang Concept of its existence before big bang, because there was nothing, other than the building blocks created by parent universes. Perhaps those universes co exist for a time, side by side or overlapping. Perhaps twin universes are born, with alternative outcomes and development and perhaps the god has concept and coexistence with other gods, capable of learning, evolving, just like us. Perhaps looking towards our own creation of body and soul will help understand the birth of universe and god, as like us, the physical universe must have been created, while the life force or god behind it must also have been created or transferred by itself or something else. Where I struggle is infinity. Whatever outcome or
    you meet, there must have been something before it. Like us, perhaps the universe will fizzle out, die, crash or burn, but there will be something after, perhaps complete different but consuming the physical. As for the god in my theory, that like our souls remains a mystery to be solved by looking inwards as well as outwards to the stars. God and our souls just maybe one connection after all…

    christov, June 17, 2015 at 7:22 pm
  25. Ok, dialogue, feedback. Well, since the discussion stopped being about science and became about kookery, what’s the point? That sounds harsh but I don’t know how else to put it.

    Anyway, back to the original article- the second paragraph is most important. We haven’t been able to get too what happened a very short time after the big bang, so asking what happened before the big bang is jumping several stages that need to be accounted for first (for a scientific theory). Now, scientists and everyone else is happy to hypothesis about the time before BB, and maybe that could lead to something useful, but without more theories and proof of what happened before the BB, and then what the BB (or the singularity) was, I don’t think we’ll get anywhere (if necessary) on what was before the BB.

    Going the other way to the end of the universe, the evidence of the expansion of the universe and that the expansion is accelerating indicates we are heading to the “heat death of the universe”. I wish I could remember where I heard that but I love the phrase. Basically, everything will lose cohesion and energy (even black holes will ‘evaporate’ eventually) and the entire universe will reach absolute zero. That’s a lonnnngg way off and if we can figure out dark matter and dark energy that might change how we look at the expanding universe, but that’s what things look like now. Corresponds with the 2nd law of thermodynamics too, that doesn’t hurt.

    ryliana, July 5, 2015 at 9:42 am
  26. All matter had a beginning in space and time. Space and time are equal. Both are of infinite nature. No space no time. We had a beginning. Before we were born we did not experience any space or time. It is said that God is nature well nature created all matter. You will blow your mind trying to reason otherwise.

    Alan, July 13, 2015 at 4:04 am
  27. Hi fellow philosophers. We always talk out but never to each other. So here is a shout out to each of you


    I wil enjoy my coffee tomorrow


    You are not alone in being alone


    Your are right this blog is primarily about the article. You made me read it again which I have not done for 5 years. It i true it is good especially the second paragraph. I personally still believe in Einsteins Field Theory. But yeah yeah that gets into god stuff such as wouldn’t god have to create the mathematical universe blah blah blah. We live now so much more in a quantum theory type of society. Right? I see order breaking down don’t you?


    you have found the truth, you are god and god is you. Would God want Otherwise? Mine wouldn’t and isn’t each of our gods the god we create whether we admit it or not. The benevolent being we can not grasp is for the weak minded but is not for those of us free thinkers that found this article.


    I should write more poetry because it is so seemingly useless which makes it so good.

    canice, August 30, 2015 at 12:34 am
  28. Appreciation for the good writeup. Them in truth was once a new amusement consideration it.. uzaylıresimleri Look superior in order to extra additional reasonable of your stuff! Furthermore, how can we carry on your distance learning?

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  29. how can you think out side from Universe as you living inside of it?
    our consciousness also part of the universe. so we can’t imagin out side of universe

    nero lives, October 15, 2015 at 4:40 am
  30. could point singularity be when the universe stretch so far it collapse upon its shear mass of its own weight thus becoming a point singularity

    Joe, November 18, 2015 at 4:19 am
  31. Before big bang there was no time for this universe but it was for another universe. This time gave birth to our universe《time and space for us》.

    Awais Mughal, December 22, 2015 at 5:49 am
  32. There is no such thing as space in its own right.space gets created when you move two things appart,and how big the space between them is depends on how much energy was available to move them apart.so how much space will ultimately exist depends on how much energy was available in the singularity at the time of the big bang because you cannot destroy or create new energy.so when all the energy is used up that will be the size of space (space and energy limits one another) but in the process you will sit with kinetic energy (because you can not destroy energy ) so the big crunch will start etc.etc.etc. ad infinitum.

    willy Gauche', December 25, 2015 at 10:16 pm
  33. I see so the bb or are bubble became available like a apartment God occupied well who is in the other bubbles

    Bobby OG, January 25, 2016 at 10:52 am
  34. Before the big bang, supposedly nothing exist just a black space, nothing, empty, just black. Some people say God create us and the universe, who create God? or how God appear in this complete emptiness, even if it is a God and he or she create all the Universe why he or she create so many stars and galaxies, and why the universe is infinite, and what exist beyond the entire universe? it is just a black space forever or in some point is not black emptiness anymore, what it is after that, do God is in charge of that infinite space?. Before the big bang or God something exist at all? do this life that we live now is just pure luck? just imaging from nothing to what we see today. All the theories telling us about multiple galaxies and how everything came to be, sounds like pure luck, what if never happen at all. If you think about this it will blank your mind. I say this because every time that I see the sky at night I believe that at any time everything that we see and know can disappear forever and became a black space with nothing, empty and remain like that forever.

    rolo, February 14, 2016 at 6:06 am
  35. the infinite created us. Yes it created our existence. yes it created the big bang It is the only thing that is possible. But so what that answer is obvious and simple. It is where most humans throughout our existence stopped thinking. The next question is why did it create us? To be benevolent? Probably not. If it was truly benevolent it would not have created a tear drop that falls with no answer. You see the infinite is very lonely. Only if us as humanity can stop looking to the infinite for the answer can we find the answer. You see we humans must truly give this finite existence a coherent benevolent meaning then by default will the infinite being get peace.

    canice, October 23, 2016 at 11:57 pm
  36. From my perspective, the moment I thought is the moment my universe was created. I am the centre of that universe until i am no more, that is the moment my universe ceased to exists.

    Rhodesy, February 2, 2017 at 6:12 am
  37. We are saying here that nothing firstly existed so universe just make up himself.for example if I want to be going over a sea so can his happen that all the requirements needed for a boat come together and form a boat for me it means that SOMEONE EXISTED BEFORE NOTHING EXISTED AND THEY EXIST NOW AND THEY HAD CREATED HIS UNIVERSE.in the holy book quran say the god”we are giving expedition to universe”(surah alzarayat:47)and the holy book quran came to world 1400 years ago and Hubble discovered it 80-90 years ago.

    Hassan, April 1, 2017 at 2:16 am
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