Test Tube Kitchen

Why does red wine give me a headache?

Scientists aren't sure. But here's what we do know.

March 10, 2011

Red wine is a fickle friend. It beckons with glistening ruby fingers, luring us into its swirling depths with a siren song of black cherry, currant, and the mysterious soil and mineral tastes of terroir, the taste of the land the grapes grew in. We’re entranced: we sniff, we swirl, we sip, but — unfortunately for our heads — most of us don’t spit.

The resulting red wine headache is a widespread affliction that can strike after as little as one glass. It’s often accompanied by nausea and flushed skin. But this effect doesn’t happen with white wine, and the majority of us suffer no ill effects from a glass of pinot noir or cabernet sauvignon (unless we knock back too many glasses).

So what’s the deal with the red wine headache? To find out, I turned to Chris Gerling, an oenologist (wine scientist) at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York.

Sulfites are often blamed, says Gerling. Sulfites (or SO2) are a natural component of wine, but they’re also a common preservative, usually added to wine at several stages during its production to prevent bacteria and oxidation. Without sulfites, we couldn’t have wine: grape juice would turn into vinegar. Some people are allergic to sulfites, and it can cause problems for asthmatics too. However, red wine isn’t alone in its sulfite content: in fact, sweet white wines often contain more. And, Gerling points out, “there is no documented danger to the rest of the population, including headaches, at the parts per million levels at which SO2 is found in wine.”

Gerling says that the other main suspect behind the red wine headache is biogenic amines, compounds which are produced by living things and contain nitrogen. They include compounds like histamine and tyrosine, which can have adverse effects if they’re consumed (histamine has been linked to allergies, for example). But once again, Gerling explains, “the concentrations usually thought to cause trouble are much higher than those found in wine.”

Another big hole in the case against sulfites and amines is that both occur in many other foods. Dried fruits like apricots are loaded with sulfites, Gerling says, and amines are present in foods like fish and cheese. Tannins, which are sometimes blamed for red wine headaches, are also found in chocolate and tea. Wine headache sufferers don’t seem to have any more trouble with these food than the general population.

The cause of the phenomenon remains mysterious. “One comparison I often draw is to MSG,” says Gerling. “People are convinced that MSG is the cause of ‘Chinese Food Syndrome,’ but there have been all sorts of studies done where they try to make people react to it and no one ever does. They sprinkle MSG in Italian food and Mexican food and have groups try the food with and without, and people either react to everything (with or without MSG) or they react to nothing. No one ever eats spaghetti with and without MSG and reports feeling ill after only the MSG-laced pasta. Reports of the phenomenon are so widespread, however, that something must be going on.”

One possibility, Gerling says, is that something in the wine is reacting with these compounds, and the headache is the result of this interaction. Alcohol, for example, could perhaps increase the effects of a low dose of sulfites.  Or we could have the wrong suspects: some other chemical compound, or maybe a strain of yeast or bacteria present in red wine, could be to blame.

Unfortunately, without a known cause of the red wine headache, there’s also no proven cure. If you’re one of the unlucky group who suffers from this dreaded curse, your only trustworthy options are sticking to white wine, or (shudder) giving up the libation entirely. I recommend the former.

For more food science, check out TestTubeKitchen.com.

About the Author



Gen says:

Really interesting article. I love a good red but can never understand why one glass of one wine will give me a headache while an entire bottle of another will leave me unafflicted. My favourite winery went organic a few years ago and ever since then their red wines give me almost instant headaches. Sulfites were blamed but, as you note in this article, sulfites are in many other foods and were in the wine before they went organic. Do you have any idea about what could have changed in their ingredients and/or process for them to start giving me headaches?

Rich says:

Eye openning article. I’ve found myself just having a couple of glasses of red wine to avoid the headaches i so often get when indulging on it indiscriminatly. Beer and white wine do not give me headaches like red wine. But i will say this. Red wine, is a delight. Maybe it is just too delightful for us mere humans. Limit to two or three glasses for the brave maybe 4.

Sue Hagins says:

It’s unfortunate for sure. I only had one glass of a very delicious Pinot Noir-Shiraz and a little over an hour later was hit with a fairly strong headache. I don’t plan to stop enjoying red wine,but I may take a few Advil beforehand.

Bo Collier says:

Thought I would add a collective experience regarding wine headaches. My wife and I, along with another couple, just returned from 17 days in France. Throughout the trip that included Paris, Toulouse, and many small towns in the south we drank an inordinate amount of wine each day. Generally we would have 3 bottles between us at dinner. We constantly talked about how none of us ever got a headache. It was not unusual to have a glass around 10am and that would continue throughout the day. The only thing we could attribute the “zero” headaches from was that we bought mostly local wine from smaller producers. Most bottles were between €7 and €12 occasionally in a larger city the price would go to around €24. Thoughts?

Sue Hensler says:

I too, can drink a lot of red wine in Italy and France and get noticeably less headaches or none at all. I don’t know why this is??? I have not been able to find an answer.

Jenni G. says:

I get red wine headaches, but I also get them from black/dark teas and chocolate.. perhaps mine ARE from the tannins. Hm. Food for thought.

Khalid says:

Similarly, I had a lot of red wine in a resort in Mexico (a bottle of wine or more) with dinner (granted, did not taste as good as the Canadian one) Without any headache. But, If I drink one glass of wine in BC (Shiraz or Merlot), I get a big headache.

Papapaul says:

I have a friend that is an hobby wine maker. She uses very little preservatives and I can drink a whole bottle of Merlot without getting a headache. However, one glass of California commercial Merlot puts an icepick through my brain. She claims it is the sulfites.

Matthew says:

Honestly suffering as I type from sharing a fantastic bottle of Cabernet last evening. This article surmises what I anticipated; and that is to live in moderation. Too much wine, and you have a gift the following day…all day unfortunately!

Richard Martin Foshee says:

I only know – based on my personal experience – if I eat Chinese food, I get a headache & flushing & start itching like crazy. If I drink certain red wines w/”natural flavors”, I get a headache & flushing & start itching. I’ve quit eating Chinese food & try to find “no MSG” food in the grocery store. Complicit in the poisoning is the FDA. Instead of making poisoners fess-up that they put MSG in food & drink, the FDA lets them say “natural flavors”, on labels because somewhere, MSG is supposed to be contained in “natural foods” – although it is basically a trace molecule. Another pay-for-play lobbyists’ dream in Washington. My last poisoning is right now. I’m able to do a little work/family chores – after 9 days! A new record of misery. I used to have NO allergies. I used to go out in my childhood yard & pull poison ivy & poison oak vines off trees.. dig it up – cut them & tend to the burning of it because my Dad was so terribly allergic to the little-liked pest. I’ve also discovered that similar symptoms occur if I get a big-ol’ dose of “Red 40”, which the FDA allows big high-processors of food to use as much as they want… another payoff.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


The Scienceline Newsletter

Sign up for regular updates.