The truth about lab-grown meat

Producers say they’ll roll-out ‘clean meat’ products soon, but would you eat it?

January 16, 2019
A person holding two burgers
Will burger lovers choose meat grown in a lab over conventional meat? (Image credit: Pexels)

An open field where plump, well-fed livestock waddle their way through the grass under the eye of honest, local farmers — that’s how people like to envision where their meat comes from.

The reality, however, is that most of the beef consumed in the U.S. comes by way of an industrialized system that confines cows to small pens in vast feedlots, where they are fattened with hormone-laced grains before being shipped away for slaughter in what are essentially meat factories.

The industrial system makes meat products more affordable, but not particularly humane — and that’s beside the environmental costs and health concerns about meat-centric diets. Agriculture contributes to about 14 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions, destroys natural habitats and pollutes water worldwide.

Yet people are reluctant to give up their steaks and chickens. According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, beef and poultry consumption hit record highs in 2018, with the average American eating over 200 pounds of meat. But soon, meat lovers will have a new option for satisfying their cravings — one that involves neither open fields nor industrial slaughterhouses: laboratory-produced meat.

Until recently, the idea of lab-grown meat was constrained to a distant, futuristic realm, but by the end of 2018, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration announced a joint agreement to oversee the production of cell-cultured meat. And if manufacturers succeed in driving down current sky-high production costs, you may soon see lab-grown meat not just in fancy restaurants, but on grocery store shelves, too.

Advocates tout lab-grown meat (they prefer to call it “clean meat,” for marketing reasons) as a much more sustainable alternative to the current industrial system. Still, consumers remain skeptical. In a 2017 study published in Public Library of Science, nearly two-thirds of people surveyed were willing to try clean meat, but only one in three was willing to eat it regularly as a replacement for conventional meat. Some were skeptical of the taste and appeal of lab-grown meat while others cited safety or health concerns.

The survey also found many people had little or no understanding of what clean meat actually is. To clear up some of those misconceptions, here are some basics about lab-grown meat.

How is clean meat made?

The idea of growing cells outside of a living body has been around since the 19th century and used in everything from tissue preservation and vaccine production to chemical safety testing and much more. But it wasn’t until 2013 that the first lab-grown burger was unveiled to the world by Mark Post, a vascular physiology professor at Maastricht University in the Netherlands.

Start-ups have since raced to perfect the technology. Companies including JUST, Memphis Meat, and Mosa Meat each use a slightly different technique but the basic concept is the same: begin with a stem cell from a live animal.

“All meat starts with cells,” explains Parendi Birdie, a research associate and member of the cell development team at JUST. “And for these cells to grow, they require nurture in order to naturally grow as they would in a cow, chicken or pig.”

Developers feed the extracted cell salts, sugars and amino acids so it can grow and multiply via hundreds of cell divisions. The cells created can be of different lineages  — muscle cells, fat cells or tissues — allowing producers to create different types of meat such as steak or chopped burger.

So is it really meat?

Well, sort of. Clean meat is made from stem cells extracted from real, live animals. There are all sorts of ways to extract them, including a conventional surgical biopsy. They can even be extracted from the feather of a bird, according to Isaac Emery, a senior environmental scientist at The Good Food Institute, a non-profit organization that helps companies develop clean meat products.

However, not everyone agrees that the product should be labeled as meat. Food safety expert Catherine Hutt, a former assistant administrator for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service, advocates a cautious approach with clear labelling. “It’s about transparency for the consumer,” she says, “in order to make sure that the consumer knows [whether] they’re choosing this cell-based meat-like product, or an actual meat product.”

But Birdie argues that all that matters is the taste, and that, in her experience, clean meat tastes just like the real thing. At tastings with potential investors and consumers, she says, “when they actually eat it, it tastes exactly like meat.”

Is it better for the environment?

That’s a definite yes. A 2011 study found that clean meat produces 78 to 96 percent lower greenhouse gas emissions, uses 99 percent less land and between 82 and 92 percent less water. Research at the Good Food Institute has concluded that a cell culture the size of one chicken egg can produce a million times more meat than a chicken barn stacked with 20,000 chickens, according to Emery. Energy costs, too, are much lower  — and no animal parts are wasted, he adds.

“We won’t be growing the bones and the skin and the intestines that take up resources,” Emery says. “We’ll be vastly more efficient in the land we use.”

How much will it cost?

Experts say cost is the main obstacle standing between consumers and clean meat products.

In 2013, the first clean burger cost $325,000. While the price has decreased dramatically since then, current estimates range from $363 to $2,400 per pound, making it much more expensive than regular meat. (A pound of conventionally produced lean ground beef costs less than $6. Organically raised beef typically costs about a dollar more.)

JUST’s Birdie says the company is pushing hard to drive down production costs. “How do we make these products in order to compete with the price of a Big Mac?” she asks.

The biggest expense, she says, is protein used to feed the cells as they grow. In an effort to improve cost efficiency, JUST has developed a robotic platform capable of screening thousands of proteins to find the best at spurring growth, she says.

How soon can I try some?

Depending on where you live and your willingness to pay a very expensive restaurant tab, you may be able to try some clean meat in 2019. While JUST promises a product in the coming months, it’s a ‘limited-edition release,’ and likely available only at select restaurants.

Through his work with various producers, Emery says he expects that clean meat will be in the supermarket within two to five years, and could be as inexpensive as conventional meat in a decade.

Former USDA official Hutt, however, is less optimistic. She argues that the process behind food regulation takes a long time, and expects the debate behind labeling clean meat to drag on.

“The federal regulatory system moves slowly, deliberately,” she says. “It’s a process that takes time… the federal government is doing what it needs to do to protect the consumer.”

Emery is confident that once clean meat is available in stores, consumers will be blind to the difference. “People are driven by the same factors when we buy food, and that’s price, taste and convenience,” he says. “Once clean meat is being produced, and it’s in the restaurants and grocery stores we usually go to, there will be a lot less concern about what it’s called and where it came from.”

About the Author

Passant Rabie

Passant Rabie is an award-winning journalist from Cairo, Egypt. She feels strongly about issues related to environmental justice, conservation and access to clean water. Her interests also include genetics and race, artificial intelligence and trees. She loves trees. Prior to moving to New York, she spent years writing for independent media outlets across the Middle East and aims to produce accurate coverage of science stories within a regional context.



j. nelson says:

I think that it’s possible for something like “clean meat” to help with the ever rising issue of climate change. Since, as stated above, agriculture contributes to quite a sum of greenhouse gasses being put into our atmosphere (which in turn affects everything below), it’s definitely important to consider what we might need to achieve with modern science to limit that percentage down to 0. Greenhouse gases essentially harm the Earth by creating something like a blanket that traps in heat, causing that heat to stay within our space without an escape rout, which in turn heats up oceans and causes numerous other environmental issues.
Another plus to this idea of “lab-created meat” is that it will hopefully limit the number of cattle that graze and generally exist. Cattle are an incredibly destructive species that pretty much trample and eat everything in its way. They are an invasive species on native lands, where they pass diseases off to local bison and take the local resources for themselves, laving little to none for the bison. This would give us the space to ecologically conserve and restore large areas with native plants and give more room to those native species that have been limitted by human laws on what grounds they are considered safe on.

Scott says:

Interesting. I’d love to see it work out. Question: What protein sources are predominant (currently) in feeding these cultures? If the protein is the main cost, how will they drive down costs by the orders of magnitude required to compete in the market?

Robin Tester says:

^Scott: From what I understand certain types of algae and cyanobacteria are currently the primary sources used.

Truman says:

^Scott: I don’t know if this could be possible but may it potentially get to the point eventually to grow proteins to feed these cells in an endless loop?

Oliver says:

I find it ironic that this woman from the USDA, notorious for being lobbied excessively by food companies, claims that they are “protecting the consumer.” No doubt big farming companies will pull out all the stops to make this as difficult a process as possible to keep their profits intact.

August Pamplona says:

Through his work with various producers, Emery says he expects that clean meat will be in the supermarket within two to five years, and could be as inexpensive as conventional meat in a decade.

LOL to that wildly optimistic conjecture! For a more nuanced & realistic look, Josiah Zayner wrote a good blog post on the subject a while ago:

Annaliese says:

Very interesting I would just rather et real meat made from cattle. You will never understand my side until you have about 2,500 head of cattle as we do. Even though we raise Angus production cattle i still understand the soldering system.

Peter Jackson says:

It is about time that change comes. This is the future and the current meat industry is out dated and not aligned with the environmental concerns the new generation demands. Who care what it is called, just bring it to the market ASAP.

Youcant Beserious says:

Disgusting. Monsanto has been sued left and right for their RoundUp causing lymphatic cancer, and they still douse the crops with it. Just wait and see what they do to make this mutant meat cheap and marketable. And the FDA will play ball with whatever toxic scheme they come up with. Dollars for death.

Jonathan Aranda says:

I really hope food lobbies don’t get in the way. This as a cheap meat alternatives could help poor families everywhere and more importantly make killing anims meaningless and unnecessary

pookie says:

“Torture-free” meat would be a better description than “clean meat”. To think that people would even consider torturing and killing BILLIONS of animals year in and year out when there is another option available, sickens me.

Environmental destruction should be included in the price of tortured-meat: the destruction of topsoil, the polluting of water and air, and the thousands of gallons of water to make 1 lb. of beef. Your $2 burger just became a $200 burger.

Andy says:

Yeah let’s hurt and destroy billions of livelihoods linked to animal agriculture around the world. From the farmers themselves to every single company they do business with, and every single company they do business with, and on and on down the line. Only the naive think this is all good.

Dr. Ken Nordlund says:

The misinformation in this article is staggering. One example from the second paragraph states that conventional beef cattle are “fattened with hormone-laced grains.” I challenge the author to name ONE single hormone-laced grain! The glib and ignorant comment discredits the rest of the article.

Clyde Eddie Riboldi says:

I’m not sure how anything costing $2,000 can be more environmentally friendly. They probably calculated merely the green house emissions directly produced but anytime costs are high like that, energy has to be used.

We went from feeding cattle grass to corn and look at all the health issues this caused. Do we really think there will be no health consequences from man-made meat?

Michael tough says:

I would like to know if clean meat or whatever you end up calling it becomes a reality how many factories would it take to feed the uk, i would also like to know how large they would have to be and how many people would be employed in the production of said factories.

Keith Lauder says:

This is the most repulsive, disgusting ‘food’ I can imagine.

cyrus.lagranda says:

@ Keith Lauder you have very little imagination and must never have watched the movie SOYLENT GREEN …search?q=poop+burger
POOP BURGER: Japanese Researcher Creates Artificial Meat From Human Feces

i am still skeptical about the safety of these lab grown meats. i believe that eating such meat can expose someone to cancer and other health issues.

David Fletcher says:

Some real Luddites on here

Robert Evans says:

Maybe it will be cheaper for those companies to get the PROTEIN to feed these Stem Cells by farming Cattle & Chickens the old fashioned way, or raping the oceans for wild fish & Krill to `manufacture’ the `protein product ‘ they need.

Unless an `environmentally friendly’ source of that protein can be found the whole process will be as ludicrous as charging your Electric Vehicle from an outlet connected to a fossil fuel powered electricity generator.

That one dude I think says:

What’s the purpose of this article?

Lupe says:

Considering cows, chickens or pigs have, actually, little or nothing to do with climate change makes this idea a scam for the creators to make money and, possibly, put peoples lives in danger.
One TRULY should research AGW before running amok with this nonsense.
Basic high school science will disprove AGW but that will kill the scammers income yield. Eh?
Give me a good ol beef burger from a fat, grass fed cow any day!

Debbie says:

I never comment like this on anything but I found this article interesting. My question is though, what about the nutritional value. Meat is packed with vitamins. Does this lab grown meat have any nutritional value?.

j says:

Beside environment, Lab-grown meat is eating cancer. What could we know the meat has genes including mutations

Chris smith says:

Don’t fall for this big lie. You eat crap that’s not real you get cancer. Look at the Georgia guide stones, they’re trying to depopulate the world. This is just another thing for you to get you sick. Your body is not meant for that. Just look around and see how everybody is getting worse. Open your eyes people, I’m a doctor, they are lying to you. The higher ups can put and take out anything in social media and things like this. It’s hard to find stuff that talks bad about fake meat because they don’t want you to know.

Rob says:

This is going to be a major disruption to the animal agriculture industry, whether some people like it or not. The jobs and livelihoods, as an earlier commenter mentioned, will be shifted but not completely lost, and will no longer require farm subsidies from the government or exploited migrant workers. The environmental benefits will be enormous, the economic and environmental justice benefits for many of the world’s most deserving people will also be enormous. And the inhumane and unnecessary mistreatment and slaughter of billions of sentient animals will no longer be carried out, largely in secret, by pathetic humans who can’t figure out a way to “make a living” by doing something that’s actually beneficial for humanity. I for one welcome the future of clean meat, though I will likely stick to my plant-based diet and continue to reap the emotional and physical health benefits that come with it.

Eco-vegans annoy me says:

I trust Mother Nature more than a scientist.
Fresh, organic, grass raised and locally sourced meat will always be my preference over anything ‘raised’ from a Petri dish.
The way humans live needs to change. If we boycotted the large fast food establishments there wouldn’t be the huge demand for beef and chicken and that measly 14% could be reduced even further. If we didn’t demand produce to be shipped from all over the world ie. avocados from Mexico etc, that would cut greenhouse gasses too.
Change has to come from how we live our daily lives not from lab grown meat, this is not the right way forward.

Joe Newark says:

I cant imagine lab grown meat will be exact to natural animal meat, no synthetic replacement has come without adverse consequences. But, the comaprison to the factory style, corn fed cattle is a problem also. We need to make that illegal, and require farmers to have enough land to raise livestock in a natural way…most of the problems with the meat industry is from the warehouse style of raising animals. livestock consume crops and fertilize the land for the crops to grow, cant remove them from eachother without adding something synthetic

Jim Collins says:

Without space travel we are one rock away from extinction. You can’t raise animals in space. Climate change is no longer a problem. We are already past the tipping point. The Earth is going to become a lifeless hell like Venus and there is nothing humankind can do to stop it. There are very few things I like as much as a well marbled very rare ribeye steak. I thought the only way we could pull this off was lab grown cancerous tumors and my knives are sharp and ready for that. I’ve rarely been so delighted to be wrong. If you and your descendants want to stay on this dying Hell scape good luck. I am ready for Mr. Musk to say let’s go. It’s over this planet can’t be saved. The only question is how radically will you change your lives to postpone it. After reading your comments you and your descendants are toast. You had choices and America blew it. I want to leave before we are banned for negligence, stupidity, hard headedness, and greed.

John Ackerman says:

This is just what everybody wants and I don’t want it I want real meat chicken fish Beef Pork I don’t want none of this lab stuff remind me of the movie soylent green. You never know what the government wants to put in to what you were eating now wait until .Do you know how many farmers would lose their way of life,

Don’tfall Forhoaxs says:

PETA- People Eating Tasty Animals.
I’d rather have real meat. I enjoy hunting for my food. Deer, wild turkey, rabbits and Canada geese are all delicious. Unfortunately we can’t get away with government messing with everything. Chemtrails are sprayed and get everything covered with the crap they are spraying. We need less government. That’s the big problem.

Elizabeth Diane Dale says:

Ok, here are my legitimate questions that haven’t been answered by any articles I have read on this subject. 1) How much electricity is used to produce lab grown meat? ( Cows and chickens grow without electricity.) 2) How is using a live animal for biopsying for genetic material less cruel than slaughter? 3) What kind of waste is produced by such a facility and how is it disposed of? 4) How does the protein growth bath change the nutrients of the meat product? 5) Will we still have to rely on real animals for the production of eggs, organ meat, leather, and biproducts which are used in pet food, fuels, glue, and other products which we use every day? 6) To lower cost requirements and ramp up production, won’t you have to produce it in a more industrial and less laboratory environment, hiring less skilled labor, and causing a less sterile environment opening it up to more contamination as it grows without immune system? If these people are so worried about water and earth contamination… And Last but not least…How is a cow or chicken somehow worse that pharmacutical, chemical, or fossil fuel companies??

George Dryer says:

Man cannot improve on what God has made. No way I would eat that crap.

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